haplogroup g origin

Y-chromosome lineages from Portugal, Madeira and Acores record elements of Sephardim and Berber ancestry. Two sources of the Russian patrilineal heritage in their Eurasian context. BMC Evol Biol 2011; 11: 69. If a sample meets the criteria indicated for these three markers, it is likely the sample is G2a2b1. Balanovsky O, Dibirova K, Dybo A et al. G-CTS2488 or G2a2b2 (also known as G-L141.1; previously G-141 and G2a3b) was identified only in mid-2009 at Family Tree DNA. In order to determine if one of these alternative SNPs represents a subclade of M201, the alternative SNPs must be tested in G persons who are negative for the known subclades of G. There are only a tiny number of persons in such a category, and only a tiny number of persons have been tested for G equivalent SNPs other than M201. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. Keller A, Graefen A, Ball M et al. The identification of a new SNP can necessitate renaming of one or more categories. [43] L240 was identified in 2009. However, interpretations based on simple haplogroup frequency clines do not recognize underlying patterns of genetic diversification. In Europeexcept in Italy G2a2b1 constitutes less than 20% of G samples. The National Geographic Society places haplogroup G origins in the Middle East 30,000 years ago and presumes that people carrying the haplogroup took part in the spread of the Neolithic Two scholarly papers have also suggested an origin in the Middle East, while differing on the date. G2a was found also in 20 out of 22 samples of ancient Y-DNA from Treilles, the type-site of a Late Neolithic group of farmers in the South of France, dated to about 5000 years ago. and JavaScript. Such temporal estimates must be viewed with caution owing to differences in individual STR locus mutation rates, sensitivity to rare outlier STR alleles and complexities related to multiple potential founders during a demographic event. Concerning the presence of hg G in the Caucasus, one of its distinguishing features is lower haplogroup diversity in numerous populations (Supplementary Table S1) compared with Anatolia and Armenia, implying that hg G is intrusive in the Caucasus rather than autochthonous. Although the low frequency of hg G1-M285 makes it impractical to justify displaying a spatial frequency map, it is found (Supplementary Table S1) in the Near/Middle East including Anatolia, the Arabian Peninsula and Persian Gulf region, as well as Iran and the South Caucasus (mostly Armenians). G1 is possibly believed to have originated in Iran. Although both broadly distributed, G2a-P15* and its downstream L91 sub-lineage have low frequencies, with the exception of Sardinia and Corsica. Marie Lacan, Christine Keyser, Franois-Xavier Ricaut, Nicolas Brucato, Francis Duranthon, Jean Guilaine, Eric Crubzy, and Bertrand Ludes, Ancient DNA reveals male diffusion through the Neolithic Mediterranean route. Semino et al. The presence of the SNP P18 mutation characterizes G2a1a's only subclade, G2a1a. Gurdeep Matharu Lall, Maarten H. D. Larmuseau, Mark A. Jobling, Hovhannes Sahakyan, Ashot Margaryan, Richard Villems, Javier Rodriguez Luis, Leire Palencia-Madrid, Rene J. Herrera, Sandra Oliveira, Alexander Hbner, Jorge Rocha, Alessandra Modi, Desislava Nesheva, David Caramelli, Maxat Zhabagin, Zhaxylyk Sabitov, Elena Balanovska, Veronika Csky, Dniel Gerber, Anna Szcsnyi-Nagy, European Journal of Human Genetics We genotyped binary markers following PCR amplification, by either Denaturing High Performance Liquid Chromatography, RFLP analysis, Taqman assay (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA) or direct Sanger sequencing methodology. Men with the haplogroup G marker moved into Europe in Neolithic times. suggested that: "We estimate that the geographic origin of haplogroup G plausibly locates somewhere nearby eastern Anatolia, Armenia or western Iran. OS thanks the Italian Ministry of the University: Progetti Ricerca Interesse Nazionale 2009 and FIRB-Futuro in Ricerca 2008 and Fondazione Alma Mater Ticinensins. In addition, we introduce five new markers: M426, M461, M485, M527 and M547 (Supplementary Table S2). Semino et al. Beginning in 2008, additional G SNPs were identified at Family Tree DNA (L designations) and Ethnoancestry (S designations). Thus inferences regarding migratory histories must be viewed cautiously, as diversities may have changed over the time spans discussed. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2011; 108: 97889791. G-P303*, also known as G2a2b2a* (previously G2a3b1*), and its subclades are now concentrated in southern Russia and the Caucasus, as well as, at lower levels, other parts of Europe and South West Asia, especially an area including Turkey, Iran and the Middle East where G2a2b2a may have originated. A relatively high percentage of G2a2b1 persons have a value of 21 at STR marker DYS390. Haplogroup K2e (K-M147) was previously known as "Haplogroup X" and "K2a" (but is a sibling subclade of the present K2a). So far all G2a1 persons have a value of 10 at STR marker DYS392. [24] Haplogroup G-M201 is believed to have been relatively absent during Neolithic India; the frequencies of the G2a-P15 subclade for example was negligible in indigenous Indian populations. Semino O, Santachiara-Benerecetti AS, Falaschi F, Cavalli-Sforza LL, Underhill PA : Ethiopians and Khoisan share the deepest clades of the human Y-chromosome phylogeny. It was then learned that several subclades belong under L223, including: G-L91 was identified in 2009. ISSN 1018-4813 (print), Distinguishing the co-ancestries of haplogroup G Y-chromosomes in the populations of Europe and the Caucasus, Subdividing Y-chromosome haplogroup R1a1 reveals Norse Viking dispersal lineages in Britain, Phylogenetic analysis of the Y-chromosome haplogroup C2b-F1067, a dominant paternal lineage in Eastern Eurasia, Y-chromosomal connection between Hungarians and geographically distant populations of the Ural Mountain region and West Siberia, Origin and diffusion of human Y chromosome haplogroup J1-M267, Bidirectional dispersals during the peopling of the North American Arctic, The role of matrilineality in shaping patterns of Y chromosome and mtDNA sequence variation in southwestern Angola, Ancient human mitochondrial genomes from Bronze Age Bulgaria: new insights into the genetic history of Thracians, Medieval Super-Grandfather founder of Western Kazakh Clans from Haplogroup C2a1a2-M48, Early medieval genetic data from Ural region evaluated in the light of archaeological evidence of ancient Hungarians, http://harpending.humanevo.utah.edu/popstr/, Population genetic study of 17 Y-STR Loci of the Sorani Kurds in the Province of Sulaymaniyah, Iraq, Phylogenetic history of patrilineages rare in northern and eastern Europe from large-scale re-sequencing of human Y-chromosomes, Sex-biased patterns shaped the genetic history of Roma, Middle eastern genetic legacy in the paternal and maternal gene pools of Chuetas, Cancel The phylogenetic relationships of the various sub-haplogroups investigated are shown in Figure 1. Haplogroup L2b1a is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. Y-DNA Haplogroup G-M201 - Marres (b) Principal component analysis by hg G sub-clades: (A) M285, P20, P287, P15, L92 P16, M286, M485, P303, U1, L497, M527, M406, Page19, M287 and M377 sub-haplogroups with respect to total M201. The most detailed SNP mutation identified was S126 (L30), which defines G2a3.[11]. Am J Hum Genet 2002; 70: 265268. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994. In the Americas, the percentage of haplogroup G corresponds to the numbers of persons from Old World countries who emigrated. For the human mtDNA haplogroup, see. Looking still more closely at the distribution of P303 sub-clades, some distinct patterns emerge in the network (Figure 4). Moreover, the accuracy and validity of the evolutionary rate has been independently confirmed in several deep-rooted Hutterite pedigrees.34 Furthermore pedigree rate-based estimates cannot be substantiated, as they are often inconsistent with dateable archeological knowledge, for example, as clearly illustrated regarding the peopling of the Americas.35 Coalescent times based on 10 STR loci (DYS19, DYS388, DYS389I, DYS389b, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS439, DYS461-TAGA counts) and the median haplotypes of specific hg G sub-haplogroups are presented in Supplementary Table S4. These five major sub-clades of the G2 branch show distinct distribution patterns over the whole area of their spread. Another frequent sub-clade of the G2a3-M485 lineage is G2a3a-M406 (Figure 2e). Phylogenetic relationships of studied binary markers within haplogroup G in wider context of M89-defined clade. volume20,pages 12751282 (2012)Cite this article. Lacan M, Keyser C, Ricaut FX et al. In the Greek island of Crete, approximately 7%[18] to 11%[19] of males belong to haplogroup G. Moreover, these general frequencies mostly consist of two notable lineages. Although hg G1 frequency distribution, overall, extends further eastward as far as Central Asian Kazakhs (present even among Altaian Kazakhs38 with identical STR haplotypes compared with the main Kazakh population), it is virtually absent in Europe. There are additional subclades of DYS388=13 men characterized by the presence of specific SNPs or uncommon STR marker oddities. The SNP L177 (a.k.a. [12] The fourth site also from the same period is the tztal of the Italian Alps where the mummified remains of tzi the Iceman were discovered. RV and DMB thank the European Commission, Directorate-General for Research for FP7 Ecogene grant 205419. [26][27] Among the Druze mostly residents of Israel 10% were found to be haplogroup G.[28], Around 10% of Jewish males are Haplogroup G.[citation needed], In Africa, haplogroup G is rarely found in sub-Saharan Africa or south of the horn of Africa among native populations. Finally, to the east, G2a3a-M406 has an expansion time of 8800 years ago in Iran, a time horizon that corresponds to the first Neolithic settlements of the Zagros Mountains of Iran. A more compact cluster of Near/Middle Eastern samples is also resolved in the network. Although M527 frequency (Supplementary Table S1) is relatively low (16%), its phylogeographic distribution in regions such as southern Italy, Ukraine and the Levant (Druze and Palestinians) often coincides with areas associated with the Neolithic and post-Neolithic expansions into the Greek Aegean beginning approximately 7000 years ago.41 The expansion time (Td) of M527 is 71002300 years ago and is consistent with a Middle to Late Neolithic expansion of M527 in the Aegean. Haplogroup G-P303 - Wikipedia [5] Cinnioglu et al. 25 and 0.00069 denote the assumed average generation time in years and the effective mutation rate, respectively, and 1000 is used to convert the result of the equation (into thousands of years). Haplogroup H More distantly, G2a3a-M406 occurs in Italy (3%) with a Td of 8100 years ago, consistent with the model of maritime Neolithic colonization of the Italian peninsula from coastal Anatolia and/or the Levant. Kayser M, Caglia A, Corach D et al. Parallel evolution of genes and languages in the Caucasus region. P15 was identified at the University of Arizona and became widely known by 2002. The naming of sub-clades is according to YCC nomenclature principles. [7], (Subclades here conform to the Y-DNA SNP definitions used by ISOGG In 2012, several categories found only in one man in research studies were removed from the ISOGG tree causing some renaming. There were only a few G categories until 2008 when major revisions to categories were made. The North Ossetians in the mid northern Caucasus area of Russia belong overwhelmingly to the G2a1 subclade based on available samples. Genomics 1999; 57: 433437. It remains to be seen if testing will reveal G-M377 haplotypes in other populations this is some indication that G-M377 occurs at low levels in the Near East. They are found only in tiny numbers elsewhere. Amongst the Madjars, G1 was found at a rate of 87%. Croat Med J 2005; 46: 502513. Ancient DNA suggests the leading role played by men in the Neolithic dissemination. Haplogroup P (P295) is also klnown as K2b2. Here we present the haplogroup frequency distribution and STR variation of 16 informative G sub-clades by evaluating 1472 haplogroup G chromosomes belonging to 98 populations ranging from Europe to Pakistan. However, no clinal patterns were detected in the spatial autocorrelation analysis of the five sub-haplogroup frequencies with distance, suggesting that the distributions are not clinal but rather indicative of isolation by distance and demographic complexities. Goncalves R, Freitas A, Branco M et al. There are distinctive Ashkenazi Jewish and Kazakh subclades based on STR marker value combinations. There are seeming pockets of unusual concentrations within Europe. Semino O, Passarino G, Oefner PJ et al. Martinez L, Underhill PA, Zhivotovsky LA et al. Distinguishing the co-ancestries of haplogroup G Y-chromosomes in the populations of Europe and the Caucasus. The most commonly occurring subclades are G1* (M285) and many subclades of G2 (G-P287), especially: G2a (P15), G2a1 (G-FGC7535, formerly G-L293), G2a2b2a (G-P303) formerly G2a3b1); G2a2b1 (G-M406) formerly G2a3a; G2a2b2a1 (G-L140) formerly G2a3b1a; G2a2b2a1a1b (G-L497) formerly G2a3b1a2; G2a2b2a1a1a1 (G-L13) formerly G2a3b1a1a; G2a2b2a1a1c1a (G-CTS5990 or G-Z1903) formerly G2a3b1a3; G2b (G-M3115) and; G2b1 (G-M377), formerly G2b. It is notable that tzi the 5300-year-old Alpine mummy was derived for the L91 SNP and his autosomal affinity was nearest to modern Sardinians.28, The G2a2-M286 lineage is very rare, so far detected only in some individuals in Anatolia and the South Caucasus. Y-chromosomal evidence of the cultural diffusion of agriculture in Southeast Europe. See: Poznik. Farther north, 8% of ethnic Hungarian males and 5.1% of ethnic Bohemian (Czech) males have been found to belong to Haplogroup G. In South Asia, some ethnic minorities possess haplogroup G at concentrations of approximately 18%[21] to 20%[22] of Kalash, approximately 16% of Brahui,[22] and approximately 11.5% of sampled Pashtun,[21] but in only about 3% of the general Pakistani population. Haplogroup definition, a set of similar haplotypes inherited together, or a group who shares a set of similar haplotypes, used to understand genetic lineages. Nei M : Molecular Evolutionary Genetics. Int J Legal Med 1997; 110: 141149. The overall coalescent age estimate (Supplementary Table S4) for P303 is 12600 years ago. Two additional markers, DYS38829, 30 and DYS46131 were typed separately. Several G-PF3359 subclades, based on shared STR markers, probably exist. Use the Previous and Next buttons to navigate the slides or the slide controller buttons at the end to navigate through each slide. White PS, Tatum OL, Deaven LL, Longmire JL : New, male-specific microsatellite markers from the human Y chromosome. Haplogroup K2a (M2308) and its primary subclade K-M2313 were separated from Haplogroup NO (F549) in 2016. [21] In a study of 936 Indians, haplogroup G made up less than 1% of the sample and was completely absent in the tested Northwestern Indian population. It is one of two branches of the parent haplogroup GHIJK, the other being HIJK . Spatial frequency maps for hg G sub-clades that attained 10% frequency in at least one population were obtained by applying the haplogroup frequencies from Supplementary Table S1. The presence of M527 in Provence, southern Italy and Ukraine may reflect subsequent Greek maritime Iron Age colonization events16 and perhaps, given its appearance among the Druze and Palestinians, even episodes associated with the enigmatic marauding Sea Peoples.42. Am J Hum Genet 2001; 68: 10191029. Zhivotovsky LA, Underhill PA, Feldman MW : Difference between evolutionarily effective and germ line mutation rate due to stochastically varying haplogroup size. Thus, these estimates should be viewed as the upper bounds of dispersal times. Cavalli-Sforza L, Menozzi P, Piazza A : The History and Geography of Human Genes. Haplogroup G-M201 | Familypedia | Fandom Haplogroup G2a1 (also known as G-FGC753 and previously as G-L293) and its subclades represent the majority of haplogroup G samples in some parts of the Caucasus Mountains area. Interestingly, the decrease of hg G frequency towards the eastern European populations inhabiting the area adjacent to NW Caucasus, such as southern Russians and Ukrainians,18, 40 is very rapid and the borderline very sharp, indicating that gene flow from the Caucasus in the northern direction has been negligible. Haplogroup S, as of 2017, is also known as K2b1a. The Sea Peoples, from cuneiform tablets to carbon dating. Origin and Migrations of Haplogroup G-M201 The first man to carry haplogroup G-M201 likely lived in southwestern Asia or the Caucasus between 46,000 and 54,000 years ago. This is not surprising, as clines are not expected in cases of sharp changes in haplogroup frequency over a relatively small distance such as those observed for hg G, for instance between the Caucasus and Eastern Europe. G2a3a-M406 has a modest presence in Thessaly and the Peloponnese (4%),10 areas of the initial Greek Neolithic settlements. Kaniewski D, Van Campo E, Van Lerberghe K et al. Thank you for visiting nature.com. The hg G2a3b1c-L497 sub-cluster, on the other hand, has so far been found essentially in European populations and therefore is probably autochthonous to Europe. Nat Commun 2012; 3. de Knijff P, Kayser M, Caglia A et al. Samples have been identified in England, Germany, Montenegro (Bosniak), Spain, Cyprus (Greek), Turkey, Armenia, Georgia, Lebanon, Syria and Kuwait. L223 is found on the Y chromosome at rs810801 and 6405148 with a mutation from C to G. L223 was first identified in samples at 23andMe in 2009 but proved problematic as an individual test, the first successful results being reported at Family Tree DNA in late 2011 under its assigned L223 label. Yunusbayev B, Metspalu M, Jrve M et al. The origin of haplogroup G is controversial. G-L14 | Haplogroup The highest frequency values for P303 are detected in populations from Caucasus region, being especially high among South Caucasian Abkhazians (24%) and among Northwest (NW) Caucasian Adyghe and Cherkessians39.7% and 36.5%, respectively. A network analysis of representative hg G-P16 Y-STR haplotypes reveals a diffuse cluster (Supplementary Figure S2). Haplogroup G2a2b is a rare group today in Europe. In the case of the general frequency pattern of hg G, panel (a) was obtained by applying the frequencies from Supplementary Table S1 together with data taken from the literature, concerning 569 individuals representing 7 populations comprising Algerians,47 Oromo and Amhara Ethiopians,48 and Berbers, Arabs and Saharawis from Morocco.49 Dots on the map (a) indicate the approximate locations of the sampled populations. In addition, there are multiple other SNPs thought to have the same coverage as M201. The International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG) maintains the most up-to-date consensus version of haplogroup categories. Article The highest frequencies of haplogroup G appear in the Caucasus region; however it also shows significant frequencies in the Mediterranean areas and the Middle East [69,70]. Nonetheless, coalescent times provide a valuable/informative relative metric for estimating the time of lineage formation. Nonetheless, our approach using high-resolution phylogenetic relationships as well as their phylogeography to infer the possible origin of a genetic variant provides a more plausible deduction than simply the region of highest frequency. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. Semino O, Magri C, Benuzzi G, Lin AA, Al-Zahery N, et al. This video explains the migration route of Y-chromosome haplogroup G and the countries where it can be found today. Luis JR, Rowold DJ, Regueiro M et al. ISSN 1476-5438 (online) A plot of the sub-clades included in the principal component analysis (Figure 3b) indicates that the clustering of the populations from NW Caucasus is due to their U1* frequency, whereas L497 lineages account for the separation of central Europeans. Haplogroup F is the parent of haplogroups from G to R; however excluding these common haplogroups, the minor clades F*, F1, and F2, seem to appear in the Indian continent [68]. Its chromosome location listed as 21653414. The Iceman belongs to haplogroup G2a2b [13] (earlier called G2a4). It is a branch of haplogroup G (Y-DNA) (M201). These two reported Pakistani G-M377 haplotypes are quite divergent from the Ashkenazi Jewish clade, and therefore do not at all indicate a recent common origin. the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in We emphasize that our assessments are based solely on contemporary DNA distributions rather than actual prehistoric patterns. PubMedGoogle Scholar. Although the present-day frequency of G1 is low across its spread zone, the expansion time estimate (Supplementary Table S4) of 192716158 years attests to considerable antiquity. The authors declare no conflict of interest. Age Haplogroup Definition & Meaning | Dictionary.com

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